Tuesday, June 1, 2021

Arduino sensors modules for beginners

Best Arduino sensors - for beginners electronics projects

What is Sensor?

A Sensor is a device used as the primary element that measures physical value and converts it into an electrical signal. Also, we can say that the sensor is a transducer. It measures temperature, distance, light, sound, etc.

Sensors and actuators widely used in Arduino projects. These sensors come with a kit or can be purchased separately. Some of them are compatible with Arduino Uno boards and also Raspberry Pi and other electronics modules. There are lots of Arduino sensor kits available in the market.

How many types of Arduino Sensors?

There are a lot of sensors used in electronics projects, e.g. robotics cars, moving objects, flying drones, IoT(internet of things), sound and light operated, etc. Here a list of 45 in 1 electronic sensor that comes with an Arduino sensors kit, and the details of their applications.

Analog temperature Sensors

KY 013 temperature sensor

KY-013 is an analog temperature sensor module. It includes an NTC (negative temperature coefficient) thermistor. KY-13 used a bead-type thermistor, made with platinum and alloy materials. It can measure temperature from -55°C to +155°C.

Arduino sensors

Digital temperature module

Digital temperature Sensor

The digital temperature sensor contains DS18B20, a digital thermometer used for measuring the temperature of any substance.

Arduino sensors

Digital temperature module

This is a KY-028 module used with an Arduino for temperature indication purposes. NTC thermistor is the main sensor and LM393 a dual differential comparator (use two inputs, after comparison, the larger value to be sent to output). 

Arduino sensors

Temperature and Humidity module

This is a DHT11 sensor for temperature and humidity measurement. The range for temperature measurement is 0 to 50 ℃. Operating voltage from 3.3 to 5V DC. The humidity measuring range is 20 to 95% RH(relative humidity).

Arduino sensors

Arduino IR sensor

IR sensor contains infrared led (transmitter) and receiver led (photodiode). It transmits infrared light, and a photodiode detects the light. We used a potentiometer for distance adjustment.

Arduino sensors

Light Dependent Resistor(LDR)

LDR works on the principal photoconductivity. It is a light sensor that is used in automatic light-operated circuits. As it gets light on its surface, it generates a few electrons.

Arduino sensors

Joystick Module

Joystick module used in robotics projects. It has an x-axis, y-axis angle, and switch option. It is very useful for robotics arms and moving objects.

Arduino sensors

Metal Touch Sensor

It is a KY- 036 metal touch sensor used as a detection sensor. If a person/human body touches this sensor tip, it will trigger and generate an output. We can use a Led as an indication or buzzer for a sound alarm. It has a MOSFET(touch sensor) and LM386(amplifier).
Arduino sensors

Sound sensor

This is a high-sensitivity, sound sensor module. It has a condenser mic and is used for sound detection.
Arduino sensors


Arduino Laser sensor

Arduino laser sensors are very useful for switching projects. It's based on the detection of motion. It also comes with a transmitter and receiver.

Arduino sensors

Arduino optical switch

Arduino optical switch used in counting projects. It also used for interrupting devices, measuring, and counting RPM purposes.   

Arduino sensors

 Passive buzzer sensor

The passive sensor is used for beep/sound alarm for many electronic circuits. It is known as the KY-012 module. It required only low DC voltage(1.5 ~ 12) to activate.
                                                               Arduino sensors

Vibration sensor

A vibration sensor is a very simple module used to sense minor vibration. We can use it at the main door.
                                                               Arduino sensors

Arduino Shock sensor

This sensor is known as a knock sensor and a shock sensor. We used it for door-opening projects.

Arduino sensors

Arduino component kit

We use many electronic pieces of equipment in our routine life that may include Arduino sensors or other electronic IoT sensors and actuators. If we learn how to use them, we can understand the principle behind devices.

Monday, December 14, 2020

Arduino Nano pins Tutorial with Diagram and Details

Arduino Nano pins details with schematic

Arduino Nano comes in small size and has the same function as Arduino Duemilanove. Nano contains Atmega328P Microcontroller as the main chip. Nano uses a small jack for the DC power supply.  For the USB interface and power, it uses a mini USB type B cable.
It is an electronic experimental board and being small in size, we could install it easily in our projects. It has more analog pins than Uno, so very helpful to create controlling type electronics projects.

Arduino Nano Board Details

If you look at the Nano board Arduino Nano Pins the Atmega328P micro-controller is the major component of the board. The board has four LEDs for different identification. For ON, RX for receiving data, TX for transmitting data, and L for loading the program.

Arduino Nano pin Diagram

Arduino Nano pins

Atmega328P Datasheet

To learn Arduino Nano pins it is necessary to understand the datasheet of the Atmega328P Microcontroller. We can download the datasheet from the link below.

Arduino Nano pins

As described in the datasheets, I give details below,

Arduino Nano pins

Arduino Nano Pins details

Arduino Nano has Power pins, analog, and digital pins. The Analog and digital pins used for communication with different electronic components and sensors. 

If we look at one side of the board, a six-pin header is located for ICSP (In-circuit series programming). We program an Arduino board through a mini USB cable, but without the bootloader, the Microcontroller can’t be programmed.

These six pins used to upload the bootloader in the Microcontroller.  

1- MISO (master in slave out)
2- 5V(power supply)
3- SCK(Clock)
4- MOSI(master out slave in)
5- Reset
6- GND

Power Pins


Vin pin used for external power supply to the Nano board. It could be an unregulated 6-20v external power supply. We can also apply a regulated 5v supply 


If we connect the board through a mini-B USB cable for power supply, we can use these pins as a voltage source of 5V and 3.3V(Two different pins)

Arduino GPIO Pins

Nano has 14 digital input/output pins. We use it as input or output, depending on the function programmed in the board. 

pinmode() you can configure pin as input/output.
digitalwrite() configure pin as High/Low output. 
digitalread() configure to read the specified pin as High/Low(digital input).

Communication Pins with Protocols

I2C Communication

A4 and A5 pins used for I2C serial communication with other electronic modules, e.g. Wi-Fi, BlueTooth, GPS, sensors, and indicators, etc.

A4 as SDA (serial data) and A5 as SCL (serial clock) also, similar to TWI (Two-wire interface) interface by using TWI-library. 

Serial Communication

TX and RX pins used for transmitting and receiving TTL serial data. These pins connected with the corresponding FTDI USB to TTL serial chip.

SPI Communication

D10(SS), D11(MOSI), D12(MISO), D13(SCK) these pins can be used for SPI communication. The pins function is to download the bootloader in the Atmega328P, also ICSP does the same function.

Interrupt Pins

The external interrupt can be activated if configured as the value at pin becomes low, high, rising the value, falling and some change happens. Pin D2 and D3 are used as INT0 and INT1. we can monitor the operation through the interrupt function. Any change that happens, interrupt will be triggered. 

PWM Pins

Pulse Width modulation is a method, that is used to control the analog components/devices. Through PWM we increase or decrease digital signals by changing pulse and time values. PWM works with pulse and duty cycle.
To vary pulse width and time duration of duty cycle you can achieve the required value. D3, D5, D6, D9, D10, D11 used as 8-Bit PWM by analogwrite() function. 


We use the AREF pin for analog Reference voltage; we provide it from an external power supply. Reference voltage should be from 0 to 5V. AREF is used for analog input with analogreference(). 


We can configure the reset pin to stop abnormal activity or malfunction by pressing the reset button. If you make it low, it will reset the micro-controller.  

Communication method

Mini-B USB cable is used for Arduino Nano board connection with a computer or mobile phone(Android/iPhone). Serial communication UART TTL (5V) is provided by Atmega328. FT232RL chip at Nano provides serial communication via USB port.

Program the Nano board

Nano can be easily programmed with Arduino IDE software. The IDE software is compatible with Windows, Linux, Mac OS X. IDE also works on android, so a quick and easy programming job to be done.  

Arduino Nano pins, as compared to Arduino Uno, contain more options and compatibility. It could be a better option because using less space and easy installation in the projects.

Wednesday, November 4, 2020

Arduino Kits for beginners

Arduino Kits

Arduino kits are providing the ability to learn electronics easily. You can make your own projects in a few minutes. Making a circuit on a PCB is a hard job, and it requires excellent skills in soldering. Also, it consumes a lot of time. Assembling components is another problem.

But electronic portable kits solve the issue. You can gain knowledge from Arduino starter kits because the kits include project books and different varieties of sensor modules that directly connect and reconnect just in a few steps.

Arduino Starter Kit (official)

This is the official Arduino starter kit from the original manufacturer, kit. This is a complete package, including the Arduino starter kit manual. This manual contains practical images and schematics diagrams to understand well. 

The manual covers not only project making areas; also it has information about Arduino IDE software installation on Windows/MAC OS X, and Linux.

Every Project/lesson comprises example codes. So just read and build your own project. It also contains a wooden base, electronic sensors, a manual book, etc, as given below.

Arduino Kits for beginners

The Starter Kit Items

01 - Arduino Uno R3 Board
01 - Pre-cut Wooden Base
(contains mounting spaces & cuts for Arduino & sensors Installation) 
01 - 9V battery snap
70 - Jumper wires
01 - Strand jumper wires (Black, Red & White)
03 - Potentiometer (10 K ohms)
10 - Pushbutton
06 - Phototransistors
01 - TMP36-Temperature Sensor
01 - Tilt Sensor
01 - 1602 LCD(2x16 )
08 - LEDs (red, green, yellow)
01 - LED white/RGB
03 - LED Blue
01 - Small DC motor (6 ~9V)
01 - Servo motor
01 - Piezo Sensor
01 - 1H Bridge motor driver (L293D)
02 - MOSFET Transistors (IRF520)
01 - Optocoupler (4N35)
05 - Diodes (IN4007 )
05 - Capacitors (100uF)
20 - Resistors (220/10K ohms)
05 - Resistors (560/1K/4.7K/1M/10M ohms)
01 - Pinstripe (male) 40x1
03 - Transparent gels

Sparkfun inventor's kit for Projects

This is Sparkfun inventor's kit-v 4.1. If you want to learn about programming languages for electronic use, the Sparkfun kit could be helpful. It is a small Arduino robot kit for starting from zero.

The SparkFun Arduino starter kit has a red board compatible with Arduino IDE. It has an instruction manual including a kit material Box. The Sparkfun Kit comprises 16 interesting projects for newbies and for experts.
The manual including the kit is full of many interesting projects of lights, sounds, motion, and also on the LCD display. You can assemble the kit and make robotic car projects.


Arduino Kits for beginners

Inventor's Parts

01 x Sparkfun Red Board (Arduino Uno compatible)
01 x Motor Driver board
01 x Ultrasonic Distance Sensor
01 x SparkFun Inventor's Kit manual
01 x Breadboard solderless
01 x Holder for Arduino and breadboard
01 x A Small Box 
01 x mini screwdriver
01 x 16x2 LCD with the header
01 x Motor driver board with header
01 x Servo motor
01 x Ultrasonic Distance Sensor
01 x TMP36 Temp Sensor
01 x Photocell
01 x Potentiometer 10K
01 x Mini power switch
01 x Battery holder AA
01 x Piezo speaker
01 - Tricolor LED
Red, Blue, Yellow, and Green LEDs
Red, Blue, Yellow, and Green LEDs
Red, Blue, Yellow, and Green Tactile Buttons
330 and 10K Resistors
Binder Clip
Dual-Lock Fastener

Grove starter Kit

Grove starter kit has an Arduino compatible board from Seeeduino lotus and is based on the Atmega 320P micro-controller. The advantage of the kit is that you don't require any breadboard, jumper wires.
Grove starter kit is not the same as other starter kits, it is all in one kit. It contains10 additional Grove Arduino sensors. The Starter kit with tutorials of 70 pages, including 12 step-by-step tutorials for your projects.
The Grove starter kit is compatible with over 300 different pre-wired sensors.

Arduino Kits for beginners

This is an Arduino UNO basic starter kit for students and hobbyists. If you want to learn, how to start with an Arduino board and assemble projects with basic knowledge.
For Arduino starter projects, the kit contains necessary items. Geekcreit upgraded the kit version. It has sensors and actuators for creating complex projects. 
This is a cheap kit with a carton box from Banggood. But it's working fine as I already use that’s one.

Arduino Kits for beginners

 Note: Package material with carton packing

Starter kit Parts

Arduino Kits for beginners

Arduino Kits for Projects

The kit contains 50 different electronic components and more than 180 components for advanced users. You can make and program security and monitoring type projects for your home and your offices. 
No need for any soldering, just add components in Breadboard and make ready for testing. 
It includes a resistance color code card with the Arduino kit to find the resistor value. With the joystick and LCD/LED display, you can prepare a games program.

Arduino Kits for beginners

   Package list:

Arduino Kits for beginners

Friday, September 11, 2020

Electronic books for beginners

Electronic Books

A wonderful variety of electronic books.  Those who have a very basic knowledge of electronic components. These books are very useful. You can understand the basic structure of the electronic components. These are helpful for theory and practical purposes.

Encyclopedia of Electronic Components

Volume 1
Writer - Charles Platt
Amazon Kindle app books Edition

Electronics Books

Electronic Books of basic components

This book deals with the basic concepts of electronic components. We divide it into three major categories.
1- Power
2- Electromagnetism
3 -Discrete Semiconductor

The book starts with the battery that is an electrochemical power source. But a battery cell is also a power source for an electronic component. It describes the construction details, working principles, and usage of electronic components.

The most important components used in many Arduino based electronic projects. Resistors, Capacitors, Inductors used in almost every circuit. Such parts are explained in the book well.

Description of Transformers (AC to AC) Power Supply (AC to DC) Converters (DC to DC) Inverter (DC to AC) that are useful for the required source of supply.
Switches, Relays, these parts explained briefly in the book. These parts play a major role in any circuit.

The second category of the book is about motors, e.g. AC-DC motors, servomotors, and Stepper motor.

The third category is about the discrete semiconductor. Encoders, Diodes, and Transistors who single junction or multi-junction?

Encyclopedia of electronics is a reliable source if you are starting projects with electronic components, e.g. sensors, modules. The first Volume covers power, electromagnetism, and discrete semiconductors.

Volume 2 includes incorporated circuits, and light and sound sources; Volume 3 covers a variety of sensing devices.

Getting Started in Electronics

Third Edition,
Writer - Forrest M Mims III
128 Pages

Electronics Books

This book starts with the basic concept, from electricity to electronics. It deals with basic tools and items used to start a mini-project.

In this book, the semiconductor type materials and components described. The book is about semiconductor components and photonic semiconductor components.

It provides logic and symbols of logic gates, integrated circuits. Either digital integrated circuits or linear integrated circuits(operational amplifiers, function generators.

The book is not only about electronic circuits. Although it is a combination of AC power based electronic circuits. 
This book includes 100 basic electronic circuits for beginners.

The Art of electronics

Third Edition,
Writer - Paul Horowitz & Winfield Hill
Chapters: 15 sections.

Electronics Books

This beginner's guide is not only for electronic projects, we use it as a reference book. The book is about the basic foundation of electronic components.
It describes active, passive filters (LC, RF).

Introduce oscillators and timers by using chip 555. A good tutorial on voltage regulation and power conversion circuits. It is explained by 723 and 317 regulator chips. We also use the art of electronics as a textbook to design electronic projects and circuits.

The middle of the book describes digital logic concepts and logic gates. The knowledge of flip-flops, Programmable logic devices, e.g. micro-controllers, interface, software.

It covers PWM digital-to-analog converters. In the last, it is about micro-controllers, computers, and data links. It is a basic electronics book and also a practical electronics book for inventors. It is useful to study and understand electronics at a very basic level.

Encyclopedia of Electronic Components

Volume 2
Writer - Charles Platt
Amazon Kindle books Edition

Electronics Books

The book keeps valuable information on integrated chips, Transistors, Diodes, Heat & sound emitters. It explains a brief description of signal processing

It explains the component function with their Datasheet. Diagrams of components are very effective to learn quickly. 

The 2nd edition covers a variety of indicators, displays, and light sources, e.g. LEDs, Seven segment displays, LCDs modules, dot matrix displays, and amplification circuits.

Types of LCD e.g. reflective LCD/ Transreflective LCD, Active matrix /Passive matrix LCDs. monochrome LCDs/Full-color LCDs. LCD driving chip 4543B decoder.

Types of Light source from lamp/bulb or panel indicators etc, incandescent lamps/ neon bulbs/ Fluorescent lamps. Precise info about illuminance and intensity. The book Defines and segregates LEDs as per wavelength e.g. Infrared, Ultraviolet.

Working principle and function of LASER light. how it works and how it made and what is inside.

Last, about audio indicators/ different transducers, etc, Speakers/headphone types as per frequency range.

The book is not only giving knowledge about the usage of electronic components. Also explains the working principle, including internal diagrams.

Make: More Electronics

1st Edition,
Writer - Charles Platt

Electronics Books

This book is about electronic basic knowledge. It explains the basic function of electronic components. It provides practical usage of electronic components in our everyday life. It explains electronic devices used in electronics circuits.

Hands-on, why? This ebook is very effective to make electronic projects. Learn and use higher-level logic chips, comparators, shift registers in circuits.

You can learn and understand light sensors, encoders, multiplexers, decoders, and magnetic sensors. You will understand topics like endemicity, audio amplification, fantastic and negative feedback. 

Learn step-by-step instructions and hundreds of color snapshots and illustrations. This e-book will assist you to use and understand. Intermediate to advanced electronic standards and techniques.

Practical Electronics for Inventors

Fourth Edition,
Writer - Paul Scherz & Simon Monk
17 chapters, 1056 Pages
Amazon Kindle books Edition

Electronic books

Practical electronics for inventors start from electronic components symbols and color codes of electronic components. If you study electronics with very basic knowledge, it could be useful.

You can learn about voltage, current, resistance, inductance effects in the circuit.  The book provides electronic Laws and theorems used for circuit analysis.

Discrete active circuits and passive circuit components. A great book of electronic circuit analysis. Basic passive circuits and discrete circuits and integrated circuits.

How to share common ground with electronic equipment. Usage and deep Analysis of LCR (inductor, capacitance, resistance) circuits. SPICE Simulator for better understanding of nodal analysis.

Semiconductor material and components in serial and parallel circuits. The working principle of sensors, where and how used, and the category of electronic sensors.

Various kinds of chemical sensors, e.g. gas, smoke, humidity, etc. Measurement and analysis with the help of an oscilloscope. How to operate an oscilloscope to measure signals.

Learn the key feature of the electronic laboratory test equipment, oscilloscopes, Probe, multimeters, DC Power supplies, Frequency counters. Operation amplification detail and application in electronic components.


Electronic books can be effective if you have electronic kits and start assembling them. Because practice made man perfect, just start the experiment and learn through your mistakes.

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