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Monday, December 14, 2020

Arduino Nano pins Tutorial with Diagram and Details

Arduino Nano pins details with schematic


Arduino Nano comes in small size and has the same function as Arduino Duemilanove. Nano contains Atmega328P Microcontroller as the main chip. Nano uses a small jack for the DC power supply.  For the USB interface and power, it uses a mini USB type B cable.
 
It is an electronic experimental board and being small size, we could install it easily in our projects. It has more analog pins than Uno, so very helpful to create controlling type electronics projects.

Arduino Nano Board Details


If you look at the Nano board Arduino Nano Pins the Atmega328P micro-controller is the major component of the board. The board has four LEDs for different identification. For ON, RX for receiving data, TX for transmitting data, and L for loading the program.

Arduino Nano pin Diagram


Arduino Nano pins

Atmega328P Datasheet


To learn Arduino Nano pins it is necessary to understand the datasheet of the Atmega328P Microcontroller. We can download the datasheet from the link below.

Arduino Nano pins


As described in the datasheets, I give details below,

Arduino Nano pins

Arduino Nano Pins details

Arduino Nano has Power pins, analog, and digital pins. The Analog and digital pins used for communication with different electronic components and sensors. 

ICSP Pins
If we look at one side of the board, a six-pin header is located for ICSP (In-circuit series programming). We program an Arduino board through a mini USB cable, but without the bootloader, the Microcontroller can’t be programmed.

These six pins used to upload the bootloader in the Microcontroller.  

1- MISO (master in slave out)
2- 5V(power supply)
3- SCK(Clock)
4- MOSI(master out slave in)
5- Reset
6- GND

Power Pins

Vin


Vin pin used for external power supply to the Nano board. It could be an unregulated 6-20v external power supply. We can also apply a regulated 5v supply 


5V/3V3


If we connect the board through a mini-B USB cable for power supply, we can use these pins as a voltage source of 5V and 3.3V(Two different pins)

Arduino GPIO Pins


Nano has 14 digital input/output pins. We use it as input or output, depending on the function programmed in the board. 

Functions
pinmode() you can configure pin as input/output.
digitalwrite() configure pin as High/Low output. 
digitalread() configure to read the specified pin as High/Low(digital input).

Communication Pins with Protocols

I2C Communication


A4 and A5 pins used for I2C serial communication with other electronic modules, e.g. Wi-Fi, BlueTooth, GPS, sensors, and indicators, etc.

A4 as SDA (serial data) and A5 as SCL (serial clock) also, similar to TWI (Two-wire interface) interface by using TWI-library. 

Serial Communication


TX and RX pins used for transmitting and receiving TTL serial data. These pins connected with the corresponding FTDI USB to TTL serial chip.

SPI Communication


D10(SS), D11(MOSI), D12(MISO), D13(SCK) these pins can be used for SPI communication. The pins function is to download the bootloader in the Atmega328P, also ICSP does the same function.

Interrupt Pins

The external interrupt can be activated if configured as the value at pin becomes low, high, rising the value, falling and some change happens. Pin D2 and D3 are used as INT0 and INT1. we can monitor the operation through the interrupt function. Any change that happens, interrupt will be triggered. 


PWM Pins

Pulse Width modulation is a method in which we control analog components/devices with digital signals. PWM works with pulse and duty cycle. To vary pulse width and time duration of duty cycle you can achieve the required value. D3, D5, D6, D9, D10, D11 used as 8-Bit PWM by analogwrite() function. 

AREF

We use the AREF pin for analog Reference voltage; we provide it from an external power supply. Reference voltage should be from 0 to 5V. AREF is used for analog input with analogreference(). 

Reset

We can configure the reset pin to stop abnormal activity or malfunction by pressing the reset button. If you make it low, it will reset the micro-controller.  

Communication method

Mini-B USB cable is used for Arduino Nano board connection with a computer or mobile phone(Android/iPhone). Serial communication UART TTL (5V) is provided by Atmega328. FT232RL chip at Nano provides serial communication via USB port.

Program the Nano board

Nano can be easily programmed with Arduino IDE software. The IDE software is compatible with Windows, Linux, Mac OS X. IDE also works on android, so a quick and easy programming job to be done.  

Arduino Nano pins, as compared to Arduino Uno, contain more options and compatibility. It could be a better option because using less space and easy installation in the projects.

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