Arduino UNO Pinout (Diagram)and board components

Saturday, June 27, 2020

Arduino UNO Pinout (Diagram)and board components

Arduino UNO Pinout and Board description


Arduino Uno is an electronic experimental board. The Atmega328P Microcontroller is the main chip of the Arduino board. It is an open-source electronics platform, helpful to create electronics projects.

I will explain the description of the Arduino UNO Pins and the board in the post. Arduino Uno is a standard board of the company, even though other boards e, g. micro, Nano, mega, Leonardo, 101. Due and Yen. Arduino also manufactured IoT (internet of things), Bluetooth, GSM/3G, Wi-Fi, and motion sensors boards.

Arduino Uno board


The Atmega328P Microcontroller is an 8bit with 32k byte internal flash memory. To program the main chip, a 16 MHz crystal is part of the board. The Arduino board requires only 5V DC to operate.

Arduino Pins color shows pin functions. Blue color represents Power pins, Pink for analog input pins, Light blue for Digital pins, Green for communication, and Purple for PWM pins.

Arduino UNO Pinout
                                                                    FIG-A

Arduino Uno pins detail


Arduino UNO board has analog/digital (PWM) pins. These pins could be GPIO or using for specific signals.
 

Vin Pin


It uses Vin pin for 7-12 VDC apply to the board as an external power source. We can use a 9V battery cell for the input supply voltage.

Arduino UNO Pinout
   FIG-B

Analog Input Pins


Pin A0 to A5 Used as analog input pins (for Sensors modules) used as analog output. It contains 06 ADC (analog-to-digital converter)with a 10-bit resolution. These Arduino pins have the functionality of general-purpose digital in/out pins.

SDA/SCL


We use it for I²C (inter integrated-circuit) / TWI (two-wire interface) communication. A Wire library is available to communicate with different devices with the Arduino board.

Serial-UART (SPI Communication)


Pin 0 used as RX and 1 TX (in fig-A as D0&D1)used for TTL Serial Communication. RX is to receive data, and TX to transmit the data.

SPI Communication pins


10 (SS), 11 (MOSI), 12 (MISO), 13 (SCK). These pins support SPI communication.

Interrupt


Pin 2 & 3 can use as INT0 & INT1, we can configure it to act as external interrupts for a function written in the program.

PWM


Pin # 3, 5, 6, 9, 10, and 11 used for PWM function (Pulse Width Modulation). Analogwrite function () is very effective to operate the DC motors and varying led light in many electronic projects.

AREF Pin


We use an analog reference pin for analog reference. AREF is used to set external analog input voltage. We cannot use less than o and over 5 volts for the AREF Pin.

Arduino Uno Pins(GPIO) 


We use 14 digital pins as input or output. From 0 to 13 used as general-purpose digital in/out has internal pull-up resistors that can be high/low to ON/OFF maximum current per pin 40 mA.
As showing in fig A from D0 to D13 pins. A built-in led function through pin 14 (D13).

PWM (Pulse Width Modulation)

We use digital out as High or Low even with PWM outputs function. We can use these pins, As analog out/we can control the motor at different speedsDigital write() function used for high/low pins.

USB Communication Interface

For USB/Serial communication, we use mostly two chips, CH341A or Atmega16U.
 

CH341A


CH341a has used a USB interface chip for UART communication, It is a standard parallel port, memory parallel port, and synchronous serial (I2C, SPI Communication). We use the CH341A chip in many cheap programmers.

Atmega16U


We use atmega16u Microcontroller for USB serial communication interface. To program the Microcontroller, an ICSP pin header is available on the board.

LM358


LM358 is a dual-channel op-amp IC. In Arduino, used for an auto-voltage selection circuit, but in reality, it operates as an auto voltage cut-off circuit.

Arduino UNO Pinout

LM1117


It is a series of chips that set the output voltage from 1.25V to 13.8V with only two external resistors.

DC Power Port


We use this DC power port for the DC input voltage. The board is using a power supply voltage of 5-20Vdc.

USB Type B port


The USB port is used to program the chip and also for the power source. We use the port for USB connection to the computer. USB cable is used to connect the board and PC.

Reset Button


If you push the Reset button, it will restart the codes even there is a malfunction happens, just press this button, and it will restart the program.

3.3V/5V/GND


The red color pin we used for the power source. We can use a 3.3V/5V power supply voltage for our projects, but it could not exceed 50 mA. GND for ground pins.

Arduino uno schematic


To find the Arduino Uno circuit, a more detailed schematic diagram could be helpful.

Arduino UNO Pinout

Arduino Uno board comparison to other Boards


Arduino boards have come with many types of versions, as per pins, size, and
function, I will explain mostly the comparison of the Arduino UNO board.

Arduino UNO R3


Digital IO pins 14 (including 6pins PWM), 
Analog pins 6, 
Microcontroller Atmega328P,
USB to serial communication ATMEGA 8U2 Microcontroller.

Arduino Duemilanove


Duemilanove Italian word means 2009, year of manufacture.

Digital IO pins 14 (6pins PWM)

ATMEGA 168 Microcontroller.

16kb flash memory, although Uno has 32kb flash memory

FTDI USB serial communication chip.


Arduino Diecimila


After completion of the 10,000 board, it introduced the Diecimila name. 
Flash memory 16kb 
FTDI chip for the USB port.
Digital IO pins 14 

Arduino BT (Bluetooth)


Supplied with ATMEGA 168 SMD type in the start but now comes with Atmega 328, added Bluegiga TTI module.

Arduino Mega


ATMEGA 1280 Microcontroller. 

FTDI chip for USB to serial communication.

54 digital IO pins, 

15 pins for the PWM function.


Arduino Lilypad


Using the ATMEGA 32U4 Microcontroller, 
The small size of 9 digital IO pins (4pins used as an analog pin and 4 for PWM). Micro USB port used for communication.

Arduino Nano


ATMEGA  328 SMD micro-controller
Nano used a mini-B USB port for programming and the power supply voltage. Small size but same 14 digital IO pins, 
6 Pins for PWM function, 8 Pins for Analog pins.

Arduino mini


Mini is smaller than Nano. 
Atmega 168 (in start), but now uses the Atmega 328 Microcontroller,
14 digital IO pins, including 06 Analog pins.

Conclusion


Arduino Uno Pins vary in many Arduino boards, but the main pins function is similar. We have just simplified it in a concise description.

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