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"ESP32 GPIO Pinout and Overview: Complete Guide to Pin Functions

ESP32 pinout and functions and details

ESP32 module is an Internet of things wireless module. It is used to control the devices through the internet. It is a remote IoT development board that can be easily programmed and controlled via WIFI or Bluetooth. 
It has a dual-core Tensilica Xtensa LX6 CPU, which provides ample processing power for various tasks. It includes GPIO pins, SPI, I2C, UART, ADC, DAC, and more peripherals. So we can configure  esp32 pins for a wide variety of projects.

                   ESP32 pinout
ESP32 development board used arduino ide to program as well as other environments e.g. micro python, Thoni, Scratch 3.0, etc.
There are several modules that are part of the ESP 32 family.  ESP32 devkit, ESP wroom-32.  It has a flash memory of 520 k bytes with a working frequency of 240kMHZ. WIFI 802.11, Bluetooth 4.2BR and BLE technology.
Input and output pins, i2c pins, digital to analog converter. Wi-fi and Bluetooth to connect with devices wirelessly.


The ESP32 has a large number of GPIO pins, typically labeled GPIO0 to GPIO39. The pins can be configured as digital inputs or outputs and used to control LEDs, read switches, or interface with other digital devices.

Analog Pins 

The ESP32 has a built-in ADC (Analog to Digital Converter) with multiple input channels. Typically, GPIO pins can also be configured to function as analog inputs (labeled as ADC1_CHx or ADC2_CHx). This function allows the ESP32 to measure analog voltages from sensors or other analog devices.

Communication Interfaces

SPI (Serial Peripheral Interface)

The ESP32 has built-in hardware support for SPI communication, with dedicated pins for SPI communication (MISO, MOSI, SCK) as well as additional pins for chip select (CS) and data/command selection (DC).

I2C (Inter-Integrated Circuit)

The ESP32 supports I2C communication through dedicated pins (SDA, SCL).
UART (Universal Asynchronous Receiver-Transmitter)
The ESP32 has multiple UART interfaces, each with dedicated pins for transmitting (TX) and receiving (RX) serial data.

PWM (Pulse Width Modulation)

Some GPIO pins on the ESP32 can be configured to output PWM signals, allowing for control of analog devices such as motors, LEDs, or servos.
Touch Pins:
The ESP32 features touch sensor capabilities, with some GPIO pins capable of detecting touch inputs. These pins are often labeled as T0 to T9.
Power Pins:
In addition to the pins mentioned above, the ESP32 also has pins for power supply (VCC, GND), enabling connection to power sources and ground.

Power Supply

There are different power supply ports options available on the ESP32. It has a USB port for power and to program the module. The micro USB port, or C type port is also available according to the requirement.

ESP 32 Boot modes

The ESP32 microcontroller has different boot modes that determine how it boots up and where it loads its firmware from. The main boot modes for the ESP32 are as follows. The strapping pins are typically used to select one of several boot modes.

Normal Boot Mode

ESP32 boots from its internal flash memory in normal mode. The boot sequence typically starts executing code from a predefined address in the flash memory, where the firmware is stored.

Boot from UART Download Mode

UART mode is used for firmware development and updating. When specific GPIO pins are pulled to a certain state during reset, the ESP32 enters UART download mode, where it waits to receive firmware over the UART interface for programming.

Boot from SPI Flash Boot Mode

From SPI Flash mode, the ESP32 boots from an external SPI flash memory connected to the chip. This mode is commonly used when the firmware exceeds the internal flash capacity or when external storage is preferred.

Boot from SD Card Boot Mode

ESP32 modules and development boards can boot from SD cards. In this mode, the ESP32 reads the firmware from an SD card connected to the device during boot-up.

Boot from RAM Boot Mode

RAM boot mode is used for debugging purposes. When the ESP32 is forced into this mode, it loads firmware directly from RAM instead of flash memory. This mode is typically not used in normal operation.

ESP32 Series

ESP32-WROOM Series:

This series includes modules such as ESP32-WROOM-32, containing integrated antennas and commonly used in IoT applications.

ESP32-WROVER Series:

These modules, such as ESP32-WROVER and ESP32-WROVER-B, feature additional PSRAM (Pseudo Static RAM) alongside the standard ESP32 features, providing more memory for demanding applications.

ESP32-PICO Series:

This series includes compact modules such as ESP32-PICO-D4, which integrate the ESP32 chip along with flash memory and other components into a small form factor package, suitable for space-constrained designs.

ESP32-S Series:

These are ultra-small modules designed for wearable devices and other compact IoT applications. An example is the ESP32-SOLO-1 module.

ESP32-C Series:

This series includes modules like ESP32-C3, which is based on the RISC-V architecture instead of the Xtensa architecture used in other ESP32 chips. The ESP32-C3 is designed for ultra-low-power applications.

ESP32 Dev Kits:

These are development boards that typically feature one of the ESP32 modules along with additional components like USB interfaces, voltage regulators, and GPIO headers, making them ideal for prototyping and development.
These are some of the main types of ESP32 chips and modules available. Each type may have different specifications, features, and form factors, catering to a wide range of applications and requirements.
The ESP32 pinout varies depending on the specific module or development board being used.


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