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Electronic components

Electronic components function and details

Electronic devices have become a part of all our lives. We know, we prepared these devices with electronic components. These circuit board components have changed our life. 

It is essential to know how to identify circuit board parts, whether you are an electronic technician or engineer.

We made the electronics devices with integrated chips and circuit components. In circuits, electronic components are used.

Electronic components

What are active and passive components?

Types of electronic components?

There are two major types of electronic components. In electronic circuits, there are active and passive components.

1- Active components

2- Passive components

Active components

These types of components operate with external power supplies. 

Passive components

Passive components do not require an external power supply. These components energize with circuit signals.

Electronic components list with images

We can easily understand circuits if we know electronic component symbols. Basic Electronic Components Used in Circuits are given below:

  1- Resistor

  2- Capacitor

  3- Inductor

  4- Diode

  5- Transistor

  6- LDR

  7- Switches

  8- Motor

  9- 7-Segment display

10- LCD display

11- SpeakerTransformer

12- Transformer

13- Power supply

Resistor

The resistor is used to limit the current value in a circuit. The unit of a resistor is the ohm. In a circuit, the resistor is used in series or parallel. It has different color codes to recognize its value. We add it in a circuit for led, transistor, and capacitor as required.

 It is used to control the signal levels in the circuit. The basic types of resistors are fixed resistors and variable resistors. It is made with carbon film, metal film, or metal oxide.

We can calculate resistance by resistance calculator or through,

The ohm law formula. I = V/R

Electronic components

Capacitor

The capacitor is an energy storage device. It consists of a dielectric between two electrodes. It comes in different sizes. There is a vast variety in their types as per voltage rating and as per their manufacturing type(Dielectric). 

The unit of the capacitor is a farad, normally denoted in microfarads. Capacitors have different sizes as per their capacity and types. e.g. Paper or mica. Small capacitors have three or four numbers code to indicate their value.

The capacitor formula for capacitance is C = Q/V 

Electronic components

What is a power capacitor?

As we know, a capacitor stores energy. Power capacitors are used in power banks with switchgear units to maintain the power factor.

Inductor

The inductor is a coil-shaped component. It is a passive component. If electric current flows from the coil, it generates a magnetic field. It stores magnetic field energy. The benefit of the inductor is in the AC circuit because it converts AC to the magnetic field.

The unit of the inductor is inductance, which is measured in henry denoted by H.

Electronic components

Diode

The diode consists of two layers or junctions of semiconductors. P-N junction is the main reason for the diode working. In diodes, current flows in the forward direction, that is called forward Baise. 

It comes with a variety of types as per its manufacturing. e.g. Zener diode, light-emitting diode, Schottky diode, photodiode, laser diode, etc.

Electronic components

Who decides the codes for electronic components?

Mostly, the manufacturer decides the codes for these components. Sometimes, depending upon the function, also the material of the component becomes the reason for its code.

Transistor

Essentially, a transistor is a triple-junction electronic component. Transistors are widely used in electronic circuits. There are many types of transistors. Almost every circuit contains transistors. 

We differentiate the transistor into two main types. The first is the NPN transistor and the other is a PNP transistor.

It works for amplification, switching, and regulating purposes. There are many types of transistors depending upon their construction.

1- Bipolar Junction transistor(BJT)

2- Field-Effect transistor (FET)

Difference between transistors and integrated circuits?

A transistor works as a switch, but IC has billions of transistors connected to a large number of components.

Electronic components

LDR (Light dependant Resistor)

The working principle of the LDR is based on photoconductivity. When the light is detected, LDR changes its resistance. In the light, the LDR sensor has minimum resistance although in dark it has maximum resistance. 

LDR is mostly used to control the street lights. Using LDR with the Arduino is very easy to make a light-operated circuit. We can use it for small-scale projects.  

Electronic components

Switch

The switch is used to make or break contact between two points. Occasionally, there are two types of contact used in switches. NO for normally open, and NC for normally closed contact. Switches come in different sizes and shapes as required in circuits or equipment. 

The most famous types of switches are rotary switch, toggle switch, push-button, ON-OFF switch, and also limit switch. 

Basically, switches are divided into four major types. 

SPST-Single Pole Single Throw

SPDT-Single-Pole Double Throw

DPST-Double Pole Single Throw 

DPDT-Double-Pole Double Throw

Electronic components

Motor

A motor is a device that converts electrical energy to mechanical energy. There are two main types of motors, AC motor, and DC motor. In electronics projects, mostly DC motors are used for robotic projects. 

1- Servo motor

2- Stepper motor

The stepper motor is the major part of the robotic arm. The movement of stepper motors is step-based action. Servo motor used in auto control car projects. Usually, it is used in industrial processes. It is a position-controlled motor, used for specific position control action.

Servo motors and stepper motors are part of Arduino learning kits. We use these electronic components in our Wi-Fi-based vehicle control projects.

Displays

There are many types of displays we see all around us. These segments are available in cheap electronics shops in different colors and shapes. According to their construction, we categorize these displays.

Seven-segment displays, LCD, and Led matrix

These displays are compatible with Arduino, Raspberry pi. We use seven-segment displays for showing output values. There are two types of display, common anode or common cathode type. It consists of seven segments that work with a display driver chip.

LCD is a liquid crystal display that is inbuilt with a screen. Led matrix has major usage in moving message display.

Transformer

The transformer is working on the mutual induction principle. Two main types of transformer are step-up transformer and step-down transformer. These transformers are the branch of potential transformers. 

Potential transformers increase or decrease the voltage because it is step up or step down. The transformer also increases the sound quality, called the audio transformer. A step-down transformer is used in many power supply circuits. 

There are many types as per construction. Current Transformer(CT) is another type of transformer that measures current value(Ampere). Current transformer, broadly used in clamp multimeter.

Electronic components

Power supply for electronic components

The power supply is the key requirement to run any circuit. Power supply has many components that are explained in detail. These components required, minimum of 3.7V DC to 12V DC power supply. It depends on how a circuit is designed sometimes.

Electronic components

Where from the purchase?

We can purchase from the circuit board components store. The best way to find these items, we need electronic component catalog availability.









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