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Battery Types and application with recharging formula

What is a battery?

A battery is a device that contains chemical energy, stores it, and converts it into electrical energy. There are some batteries that are made with cells connected in series.

It was Alessandro Volta who invented the battery in 1800. With this battery, the voltage fluctuated and there was an insufficient current.

Types of batteries (material)

There are many types of batteries according to construction, size, and usage. But all batteries are the source of DC voltage. The battery capacity depends upon its ampere value.

1- Nickel-cadmium
2 - Lithium ion
3- Zinc-carbon 
4- Silver oxide
5- Lead-acid

Nickel-Cadmium batteries

Nickel-cadmium batteries or NiCad batteries have a long service life and could last for years. But the disadvantage is the toxic material. However, it has the advantage of being unable to overcharge.


Lithium metal batteries

We use some battery cells in small devices. We use some battery cells in small devices, like digital watches, calculators, and car remotes that are button-shaped. Specifically, these batteries are silver-oxide, alkaline, and lithium-ion batteries.

We know these cells by their Code numbers, e.g. CR2016, CR2060, CR2450. This lithium battery is a metal-type cell with a 3V DC capacity.


Zinc-carbon batteries

We used it in toys, TV remotes, and clocks. It is a primary cell-type dry battery. It comprises zinc, manganese dioxide, and a carbon rod.

Through electrochemical reactions, the cell generates voltage. The carbon rod is used as an anode, and zinc is a cathode with negative polarity. AA type 1.5 cell is an example of zinc-carbon.


Silver-oxide batteries

Silver oxide is the combination of zinc and silver oxide. In these batteries, zinc serves as an anode and silver oxide as a cathode. An example of silver oxide in the battery is a button/coin cell. We use it in watches, calculators, and small electronic devices.

Lead-acid batteries

These are acidic batteries, used in vehicles, e.g. cars, buses, trucks, etc. Even though it is widely used with UPS or inverters for electricity for homes. These types of batteries are very sustainable and used for backup power sources.

Primary Cell

These types of cells can’t recharge. We use them in TV remotes, clocks, and toys. It is a one-time use cell.

Rechargeable batteries

We know these as secondary batteries or rechargeable batteries. An example of this is a lead-acid battery. The dry type of cell is also rechargeable.

We used rechargeable batteries for drill machines, cars and motorbikes, and inverters.

Battery types (size)

1- Button Cell

The Button cell is a small and button-shaped battery. We use it in hand-held calculators, wristwatches, and also toys.


2- AA batteries

Double-A battery is a small 1.5V cell with long-lasting power. We use AA batteries for small electronic equipment that requires minimal power. Mercury or cadmium is not used in these batteries.

3- AAA batteries

AAA batteries have the same type as AA batteries, but they differ in size. AAA full batteries can work up to two years continuously. These batteries are made from alkaline and can be stored for up to 10 years.

4- AAAA batteries

AAAA batteries are slim, and rechargeable. These cells are used in ink pens, Microsoft digital pens. A USB-type charger is enough to charge easily with a laptop or computer. It is made with NI-MH material. The capacity of a cell is 1.2V with 450mh.


5- C batteries

C batteries are bigger than AA and AAA batteries but contain the same voltage. Their size is the only difference.

6- D batteries

D batteries contain 1.5V but have more capacity than AA and AAA. It is bigger(size) and is made of alkaline.

7- 9V batteries

9V batteries are very famous in many electronics equipment. It has better power than other small cells, so we use it in scales, alarm circuits, and devices that require more power.

8- 23A batteries 12 volt

This is a small 12-volt battery of 23 Amp capacity. We use dry batteries in radio frequency or Wi-Fi-operated devices. RF-controlled remote required strong voltage to generate radio frequency signal for switching. This is made with an alkaline material.

9- Cordless battery

Drill machine batteries consist of cells connected in series. Cordless batteries are lithium-ion type, used in power tools. It comes with 18V, 20V, 36V with 2.0AH, 4.0 AH, 5.0AH, 6.0AH, etc. these batteries are rechargeable and used for the long term.

Car batteries/inverter battery

Car or auto batteries comprise galvanic cells that are connected in series. We categorized them according to their size and ampere capacity. Wet cell batteries contain six cells, filled with sulfuric acid. 

This type of battery life is almost two to three years. The battery replacement chart can also be helpful.
To get the best result, for long battery life, we should clean the terminal against debris. Car battery replacement is not a hard task.

We also know an Inverter battery as an automotive battery. There are different amperage levels, such as 63AH, 70AH, 80AH.
Other types of best automotive batteries include dry cell types, such as AGM and lithium-ion. The dry battery replacement is very easy because it comes in small sizes.

Batteries in serial Vs parallel

We know that something connected batteries in series and parallel. But what is the reason for the scenario? In a simple example, in TV remote AAA batteries connected in series, it increases the voltage from 1.5V to 3V.

So the series connections will increase voltage capacity. Parallel connection of batteries will increase amperage capability. We connected batteries in parallel, just as in industries, to provide a backup for voltage supplies.


Batteries charging time

The charging depends upon the size of the battery, and also the charging circuit ampere capacity. A drill machine battery will take less time than a car battery. Normally slow charging is better for batteries' life.

The formula of battery Charging(Lead Acid)

We can find the charging time by using the formula.

Battery charging time =  Battery Amp / current Amp

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